The Trajectory Of Adult Weight Gain

Behold! It is 500-1000g annually.

If you want to change your future for the better: sleep enough, eat healthy food and don’t be a sloth.

And maybe fidget to burn more energy, so you can eat more food.

Food is great.


  1. Hutfless S, Maruthur NM, Wilson RF, et al. Strategies to Prevent Weight Gain Among Adults [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Mar. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 97.) Available from:
  2. Robards, T. (2016). Is it natural to get fatter with age?. Retrieved from
  3. Healthy Weight. Retrieved from
  4. Publishing, H. (2015). Does Metabolism Matter in Weight Loss?. Retrieved from

The Microbiological Dangers Of Food

Learning Points

  1. Expired food can smell normal.
  2. Bacteria can immediately infect food that has been dropped on the floor. The risk is higher in wet, squishy things compared to dry substances. It increases with time spent on the ground.
  3. With meat that is considered safe to have rare on the inside, the principle is that cooking the outside sufficiently kills bacteria on the surface.


  1. Moir, C. (2018). Food safety: are the sniff test, the five-second rule and rare burgers safe?. [online] CSIROscope. Available at: [Accessed 13 Jun. 2018].

Bulletproof Skepticism

Beware unbalanced, unsustainable diets. Weight loss is not everything. Having an energy intake lower than the energy expended is the general idea of not becoming a bubble of fat, but there are ways to do it that are more conducive to good health than others.

Everything has a recommended intake, from protein to water. Ranges are cautionary rather than absolute, but they still serve as a useful guide.

Meal avoidance for the sake of temporarily shedding kilograms is not recommended, especially when there are arguments for simply eating less or purposely inducing metabolism instead. Deficiency can be dangerous. Conversely, loading too much of a macronutrient can be harmful.

When in doubt, err on the side of common sense; yak butter for breakfast is unlikely to be as healthy as fresh fruit and vegetables.


  1. ABC News. (2016). Coffee diet: Doctors issue warning over food regime inspired by ‘energising’ Tibetan butter tea. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jan. 2018].
  2. Gizmodo Australia. (2015). Bulletproof Coffee: Debunking The Hot Buttered Hype. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jan. 2018].
  3. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. (2017). Nutrients | Nutrient Reference Values. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Jan. 2018].
  4. Mawer, R. (2017). What is Carb Cycling and How Does it Work?. [online] Healthline. Available at: [Accessed 19 Jan. 2018].

You Can’t Lose Fat In A Specific Place If You’re Fat All Over

Scientific research doesn’t support the idea of losing fat from a particular place. This is also known as spot reduction. It is a lie.

Working out a particular muscle area doesn’t dissolve the fat from that region by priority. Rather, a person’s distribution of fat is determined by the mysterious workings of their body. To reduce fat in a specific spot, overall fat has to be reduced.

This doesn’t render targeted exercises useless; what you can do is build and tone a particular muscle group. It means the muscle grows in that place but the fat doesn’t necessarily disappear from it.


Muscle is an obedient dog. Muscles respond to directed exercise; bulk and tone happen in the places where you exert yourself.

Fat is a lawless cowboy. It cannot be tamed. In contrast to muscle, fat is wild and runs free; it has a secret agenda and reduces according to an overall body distribution plan.


Your problem then becomes that of losing fat overall.

The solution? It’s the usual: diet and exercise.

Eat less. Use portion control. Be less of a hog. Consume protein, fat and carbohydrates in a healthy ratio. Protein:fat:carbohydrates at 20:20:60 is a simple, approximate guide.

Exercise more. Make sweat. Jump around. Burn energy. Go to a gym.


  1. Healthline. (2018). Is It Possible to Target Fat Loss to Specific Body Parts?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018].
  2. Yale Scientific Magazine. (2011). Targeted Fat Loss: Myth or Reality?. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018].
  3. Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand. (2017). Recommendations to Reduce Chronic Disease Risk. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Jan. 2018].