Issues With Breast Tissues
Bras haven’t been proven to be useful. One argument is that it’s more of a personal preference or even a fashion statement.
There isn’t much research on this front. But based on the limited evidence out there, bras are more likely to be harmful if they’re the wrong fit. The nudists win again.
DKA can lead to AKI.
DKA can lead to lactic acidosis, which can be associated with thiamine deficiency.
Thiamine deficiency less commonly involves vomiting, which can stain clothing. The nudists win again.
- Mills, D. (2016). Health Effects of Not Wearing a Bra. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/going-braless-wont-hurt-breast-health
- Why is BRA important?. (2016). Retrieved from https://smah.uow.edu.au/brl/bra/whyisbraimportant/index.html
- Prywes, M. Science Proves That Wearing Bras Is Bad For Your Health. Retrieved from https://www.lifehack.org/336735/science-proves-that-wearing-bras-bad-for-your-health
- Hunimed Web Team. (2017). The advantages and disadvantages of wearing a bra. Retrieved from https://www.hunimed.eu/news/advantages-disadvantages-wearing-bra/
- Orban, J. C., Maizière, E. M., Ghaddab, A., Van Obberghen, E., & Ichai, C. (2014). Incidence and characteristics of acute kidney injury in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. PloS one, 9(10), e110925. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110925
- Feenstra, R. A., Kiewiet, M. K., Boerma, E. C., & ter Avest, E. (2014). Lactic acidosis in diabetic ketoacidosis. BMJ case reports, 2014, bcr2014203594. doi:10.1136/bcr-2014-203594
- Moskowitz, A., Graver, A., Giberson, T., Berg, K., Liu, X., Uber, A., Gautam, S., … Donnino, M. W. (2013). The relationship between lactate and thiamine levels in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Journal of critical care, 29(1), 182.e5-8.
- Berkheiser, K. (2018). 11 Signs and Symptoms of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Deficiency. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/thiamine-deficiency-symptoms
Warning! DNA! Deoxyribonucleic acid? No!
Do not administer!
The triple whammy can lead to bad effects on the kidneys.
There are three major ones, plus more!
- ST depression
- Flattened T waves
- Abnormally prominent U waves
The way to remember this is that, in line with the subpar nature of hypokalaemia, everything is weak and low!
ST depression is a depression, so it is low.
The T waves have low amplitude, so they too are low.
The dip of the letter U, as in U waves, looks like the minimum point of a parabola, so it’s also low.
Conveniently, it all follows an alphabetical pattern: ST, T, U.
- ECG Learning Center. (n.d.). 12. Nice Seeing “U” Again. [online] Available at: https://ecg.utah.edu/lesson/12 [Accessed 4 Jul. 2018].
- Burns, E. (n.d.). Hypokalaemia. [online] LITFL. Available at: https://lifeinthefastlane.com/ecg-library/basics/hypokalaemia/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2018].
The heart isn’t actually heart-shaped, but kidneys really are kidney-shaped!
In this episode, Dr Lucy talks about renal medicine, how to make it into physician specialty training and finding a job in the modern medical climate.
About the guest speaker
Dr Lucy Wynter did her nephrology training at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and Concord Hospital and maintains close ties with both centres. She completed a Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery with honours and a Masters of Bioethics, at Sydney University.
Dr Lucy lectures at the University of Sydney Medical School and is currently employed part time as a Senior Lecturer and Clinical Studies Advisor to the Office of Medical Education.
Dr Lucy’s particular interests include: Hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetic Nephropathy, Kidney Stones, Cardio-renal Syndrome and Renal Supportive Care.
Opening and closing themes by Lily Chen.
If hyperkalaemia is indeed real and not caused by haemolysis or a bad sample, treatment can be appropriate. It’s urgent if there are ECG changes.
- Calcium gluconate
- Stops membrane depolarisation
- Does not reduce the serum potassium level
- Sodium bicarbonate IV
- To treat metabolic acidosis, which can be a potential underlying cause
- Potassium moves out of cells because it exchanges with hydrogen ions
- Insulin and glucose IV
- Use short-acting insulin
- To promote uptake of potassium into cells
- Effective in kidney failure
- Polystyrene resin orally
- Removes potassium from bowel lumen by exchanging it for sodium or calcium
- Comes in sodium or calcium varieties, called Resonium
- Sodium type adds to sodium load in body
- Calcium type avoids this but is unsuitable in hypercalcaemia
- Last resort if extreme hyperkalaemia and nothing else works
Of course, the underlying cause should be treated; if it’s hypoaldosteronism, such as from adrenal insufficiency, corticosteroids should be given. If it’s volume depletion, that should be corrected. If the hyperkalaemia is caused by a medication, that medication should be ceased.
- Electrolyte abnormalities. In: eTG complete [Internet]. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited (eTG November 2017 edition); 2017 Nov.
- acutecaretesting.org. (2013). On the relationship between potassium and acid-base balance. [online] Available at: https://acutecaretesting.org/en/journal-scans/on-the-relationship-between-potassium-and-acid-base-balance [Accessed 17 Feb. 2018].
The urinary tract is divided into two parts:
Uncomplicated UTIs occur when there isn’t a functional or anatomical abnormality. Females are the main target.
Complicated UTIs occur when there’s a functional or anatomical abnormality, such as bladder issues, kidney stones or diabetes mellitus.
In both forms, the most common bacterial cause of UTIs is Pee coli. That is, E. coli. Multidrug-resistant strains are emerging.
Pyelonephritis means inflammation of the renal pelvis. Causes include:
- Ascending UTI, where bacteria march up the urinary tract
- Vesicoureteral reflux, which is where urine goes the wrong way up the urinary tract, due to an anatomical abnormality or blockage
- Fever and chills
- Flank pain
- Nausea and vomiting
Investigations can show leukocytes in the urine and blood, plus other generic markers of infection.
For treatment, collect urine samples before administering antibiotics. For mild cases, oral antibiotics are sufficient. For severe cases, IV antibiotics are warranted.
Cystitis means inflammation of the bladder.
Empirical treatment can be started in non-pregnant females with uncomplicated cystitis. In other cases, collect urine samples before administering antibiotics.
- Urinary tract infections [revised 2015 Oct]. In: eTG complete [Internet]. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited (eTG November 2017 edition); 2017 Nov.
- Manski, D. (2017). Acute Pyelonephritis: Definition and Causes. [online] Urology Textbook. Available at: http://www.urology-textbook.com/acute-pyelonephritis.html [Accessed 29 Dec. 2017].
- Shah, V. and Gaillard, F. (2017). Acute pyelonephritis. [online] Radiopaedia. Available at: https://radiopaedia.org/articles/acute-pyelonephritis-1 [Accessed 29 Dec. 2017].
- Better Health Channel. (2017). Cystitis. [online] Available at: https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/cystitis [Accessed 29 Dec. 2017].
- Mayo Clinic. (2017). Vesicoureteral reflux. [online] Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/vesicoureteral-reflux/symptoms-causes/syc-20378819 [Accessed 29 Dec. 2017].
- Healthline. (2017). Pyelonephritis | Definition & Patient Education. [online] Available at: https://www.healthline.com/health/pyelonephritis#risk-factors [Accessed 29 Dec. 2017].
- Colgan, R., Williams, M. and Johnson, J. R. (2011). Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis in Women. [online] American Family Physician. Available at: https://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/0901/p519.html [Accessed 29 Dec. 2017].
- Harding, M. (2016). Pyelonephritis. [online] Patient. Available at: https://patient.info/doctor/pyelonephritis [Accessed 29 Dec. 2017].
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor
- Acts on proximal convoluted tubule
- Inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which is normally involved in the breakdown of carbonic acid into carbon dioxide and water
- Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase leads to a build-up of bicarbonate instead, as the alternate pathway for carbonic acid metabolism
- Because there is now too much of it, more bicarbonate is set free into the urine
- But hydrogen ions are used as currency to exchange for the resorption of sodium ions, so a diuretic effect ensues
- Examples: acetazolamide
- The name has “c” and “a” in it
- Acts on thick ascending limb of Loop Of Henle
- Blocks Na+-K+-2Cl- transporter
- This has four ions in it, just as “loop” has four letters in it, as does the word “four“
- Examples: frusemide/furosemide
- Acts on distal convoluted tubule
- Blocks Na+-Cl- channel, affectionately called NKCC pump
- This has two ions in it and “thiazide” starts with “t” too
- Examples: hydrochlorothiazide
- Acts on collecting duct
- Does not evict potassium into urine for an ungracious hypokalaemia like the others
- Examples: amiloride, spironolactone
- Blocks epithelial Na+ channel, affectionately called ENaC
Diuresis refers to the increased production of urine. Thus, further substances exist that can exact a diuretic effect but do not work on kidneys in the ways listed above. For example, coffee can have a weak diuretic effect, while that of alcohol is stronger.
Diuretic Actions On Calcium
Loop –> Hypocalcaemia
Thiazide –> Hypercalcaemia
- Chaudhry, S. (2017). DIURETICS AND RENAL HORMONES. [online] McMaster Pathophysiology Review. Available at: http://www.pathophys.org/diuretics/ [Accessed 12 Sep. 2017].