Cullen Versus Grey Turner

Cullen Sign

  • Umbilical bruising
  • Memory aid: Cullenbilical

Grey Turner Sign

  • Flank bruising
  • Memory aid: the one that is not Cullenbilical


  • Both are indicative of abdominal wall haemorrhage, acute pancreatitis


  1. Wright WF. Cullen Sign and Grey Turner Sign Revisited. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2016;116(6):398–401. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.081.

Pancreatic Enzyme Tests


Lipase is more specific for pancreatic disorders than amylase.

Memory Aid

Lipase has a p in it. So does pancreas.

Amylase has nothing.

It’s magic!


  1. Healthline. (2018). Amylase and Lipase Tests: Preparation, Procedure, and Results. [online] Available at: [Accessed 12 Jul. 2018].

Plaster Makes Warmth

After you apply some wrapping around wet plaster, you might notice that the patient’s limb feels warm.

Is this simply a product of insulation?

No, it’s not just this reason.

It’s primarily because plaster and water form an exothermic reaction, so heat is released.

People can be burned by this!


  1. Burghardt, R. D., Anderson, J. G., Reed, R. A., & Herzenberg, J. E. (2014). Exothermic properties of plaster–synthetic composite casts. Journal of Children’s Orthopaedics, 8(2), 193-201. doi:10.1007/s11832-014-0563-6