Diabetic Emergencies

Do the following things, in this order of priority.

  • Dehydration – rehydrate with IV fluids
  • Insulin – to combat hyperglycaemia
  • Electrolytes – potassium shifts are a concern

A simple acronym solves everything. The point is not to let the patient DIE.

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The Trajectory Of Adult Weight Gain

Behold! It is 500-1000g annually.

If you want to change your future for the better: sleep enough, eat healthy food and don’t be a sloth.

And maybe fidget to burn more energy, so you can eat more food.

Food is great.

References

  1. Hutfless S, Maruthur NM, Wilson RF, et al. Strategies to Prevent Weight Gain Among Adults [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Mar. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 97.) Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK133218/
  2. Robards, T. (2016). Is it natural to get fatter with age?. Retrieved from https://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/fitness/weight-loss/is-it-normal-to-get-fatter-with-age-or-is-that-just-an-excuse/news-story/70471ba826cfbf8d125d24b31c77eb50
  3. Healthy Weight. Retrieved from https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-weight/
  4. Publishing, H. (2015). Does Metabolism Matter in Weight Loss?. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/diet-and-weight-loss/does-metabolism-matter-in-weight-loss

Important Facts For People Who Wear Lingerie And Have Kidneys

Issues With Breast Tissues

Bras haven’t been proven to be useful. One argument is that it’s more of a personal preference or even a fashion statement.

There isn’t much research on this front. But based on the limited evidence out there, bras  are more likely to be harmful if they’re the wrong fit. The nudists win again.

Renal Complications

DKA can lead to AKI.

DKA can lead to lactic acidosis, which can be associated with thiamine deficiency.

Thiamine deficiency less commonly involves vomiting, which can stain clothing. The nudists win again.

References

  1. Mills, D. (2016). Health Effects of Not Wearing a Bra. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/going-braless-wont-hurt-breast-health
  2. Why is BRA important?. (2016). Retrieved from https://smah.uow.edu.au/brl/bra/whyisbraimportant/index.html
  3. Prywes, M. Science Proves That Wearing Bras Is Bad For Your Health. Retrieved from https://www.lifehack.org/336735/science-proves-that-wearing-bras-bad-for-your-health
  4. Hunimed Web Team. (2017). The advantages and disadvantages of wearing a bra. Retrieved from https://www.hunimed.eu/news/advantages-disadvantages-wearing-bra/
  5. Orban, J. C., Maizière, E. M., Ghaddab, A., Van Obberghen, E., & Ichai, C. (2014). Incidence and characteristics of acute kidney injury in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. PloS one, 9(10), e110925. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110925
  6. Feenstra, R. A., Kiewiet, M. K., Boerma, E. C., & ter Avest, E. (2014). Lactic acidosis in diabetic ketoacidosis. BMJ case reports, 2014, bcr2014203594. doi:10.1136/bcr-2014-203594
  7. Moskowitz, A., Graver, A., Giberson, T., Berg, K., Liu, X., Uber, A., Gautam, S., … Donnino, M. W. (2013). The relationship between lactate and thiamine levels in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Journal of critical care, 29(1), 182.e5-8.
  8. Berkheiser, K. (2018). 11 Signs and Symptoms of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Deficiency. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/thiamine-deficiency-symptoms

The Function Of Testes

Initiation

The hypothalamus releases GnRH.

This stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release FSH and LH, which act on the testes.

Production

FSH triggers spermatogenesis from Sertoli cells.

LH triggers testosterone production from Leydig cells.

Reduction

To control things for homeostasis, Sertoli cells release inhibin to dampen the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary gland.

Testosterone gives negative feedback to the anterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.

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References

  1. Boundless Biology. (n.d.). Hormonal Control of Human Reproduction. [online] Available at: https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-biology/chapter/hormonal-control-of-human-reproduction/ [Accessed 4 Mar. 2018].

Aromatase Inhibitors

Breast cancer can be oestrogen-sensitive, so a treatment target for such types is to inhibit oestrogen.

In premenopausal women, selective oestrogen receptor modulators, more conveniently called SERMs, include tamoxifen. This particular medication acts as an oestrogen receptor antagonist at the breast but an oestrogen receptor agonist at the uterus, which is why it minority increases the risk of endometrial cancer.

In postmenopausal women, aromatase inhibitors are an option. These interrupt the production of oestrogen by suppressing the action of the enzyme aromatase. Anastrazole and letrozole are the names to know here; they’re non-steroidal, reversible binders of aromatase from the third generation of aromatase inhibitors.

Why are aromatase inhibitors less effective in premenopausal women? Premenopausal women have a large quantity of aromatase in the ovary. Note that ovarian aromatase is sensitive to changes in the gonadotropin LH, which is produced by the pituitary gland. If aromatase is suppressed with an aromatase inhibitor, gonadotropins increase in response, according to the usual feedback pattern, which stimulates more ovarian aromatase. This makes aromatase inhibitors less proficient at inhibiting oestrogen production in the ovary in such a group.

References

  1. Fabian, C. J. (2007). The what, why and how of aromatase inhibitors: hormonal agents for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 61(12), 2051–2063. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01587.x

Treatment With Glucose And Insulin In Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetes mellitus is a disease of not enough insulin. It’s a story of pancreatic insufficiency when it comes to insulin.

In Type 1, there’s no insulin produced. This is an absolute insulin deficiency.

In Type 2, the gradually failing pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin to meet the body’s increased requirements; in certain people, the body is a needy thing that becomes less and less sensitive to insulin over time, so more is needed of it. This is a relative insulin deficiency.

If diabetic ketoacidosis is a crisis characterised by a lack of insulin, why is it that both intravenous glucose and insulin are part of the treatment?

This is because DKA has two big issues:

  1. Acidic blood pH because of too many ketones
  2. Hyperglycaemia

Treatment with insulin corrects both of these. However, the hyperglycaemia resolves first. IV glucose gives more time to allow the insulin to keep suppressing ketones, thus addressing the acidosis as well.

References

  1. Diabetic ketoacidosis. In: eTG complete [Internet]. Melbourne: Therapeutic Guidelines Limited (eTG November 2017 edition); 2017 Nov.