Coloxyl With Senna


  • Docusate sodium
  • Stool softener
  • Memory aid: coloxyl has ox in it and oxen look soft and cuddly



  • Stimulant laxative
  • Memory aid: senna sounds like Sienna Miller, who is stimulating to some


Cullen Versus Grey Turner

Cullen Sign

  • Umbilical bruising
  • Memory aid: Cullenbilical

Grey Turner Sign

  • Flank bruising
  • Memory aid: the one that is not Cullenbilical


  • Both are indicative of abdominal wall haemorrhage, acute pancreatitis


  1. Wright WF. Cullen Sign and Grey Turner Sign Revisited. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2016;116(6):398–401. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.2016.081.

Colon Cancer Polyp Conditions

Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

  • Many benign polyps form in the colon, but they can become malignant if the colon is not removed
  • Average age of affected individual developing colon cancer is 39
  • Mostly commonly, is due to autosomal dominant mutation in APC gene
  • Memory aid: FAP and APC both have 3 letters

Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer

  • Also called Lynch syndrome
  • Increased risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers
  • Associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer in females
  • Colon polyps can occur earlier than in the general population but not in greater numbers
  • Autosomal dominant inheritance but can be due to mutations in a variety of genes, some of which have 3 or 5 letters
  • Memory aid: the one that’s not FAP


  1. Genetics Home Reference. (2018). Familial adenomatous polyposis. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].
  2. Genetics Home Reference. (2018). Lynch syndrome. [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 Jul. 2018].

On The Origin Of Faeces

Digestion begins with saliva.

Before food goes through your body and is turned into excrement, the process is begun by amylase.

α-amylase can digest up to 75% of the starch in potatoes and bread before this salivary enzyme is inactivated by stomach acid. That’s more than you would have anticipated, isn’t it?

Yes, α-amylase is that super awkward person at a party who just keeps hanging around and doesn’t know when to leave. Even though you’d expect it to lose its effect once food is past the mouth, it remains there for ages.

In case you’re someone who drools while asleep, the salivary secretion rate is actually 10 times higher when awake and resting than while sleeping. So basically you’re disgusting.


  1. Smith, M. E., & Morton, D. G. (2010). The digestive system: Basic science and clinical conditions (2nd ed.). New York; Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.