Smoked seafood has, unfortunately, been cast into the same category as preserved meats. These traitors have been linked with an increased risk of malignancy. Shun them all!
On the plus side, chicken is still in season(ing). As long as you’re not a greedy pig about it. Moderation, which basically means not over-gorging, is the key to success. That is, health.
- Egan, S. (2019). Do Lox and Other Smoked Fish Increase Cancer Risk?. Retrieved 29 August 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/26/well/eat/does-lox-and-other-smoked-fish-increase-cancer-risk.html
- Meat, Poultry, and Fish: Picking Healthy Proteins. (2017). Retrieved 29 August 2019, from https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/meat-poultry-and-fish-picking-healthy-proteins
These are artifacts that occur in the blood smears of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. They happen because the cells are rather fragile.
Memory aids make life better.
Smudge cells are associated with CLL.
- LabCE. (2018). Smudge Cells. [online] Available at: https://www.labce.com/spg48905_smudge_cells.aspx [Accessed 11 Sep. 2018].
Sometimes, memory aids and mnemonics fall conveniently into place. Other times, the only way to remember something is through its inconvenience, by taking the opposite of whatever it totally should have been.
- Associated with roseola
- Memory aid: roseola has 7 letters, which is inconveniently not 6 but certainly less than 8
- Associated with Kaposi sarcoma
- Memory aid: Kaposi has 6 letters, so it is not HHV-6, while Kaposi’s has 8 characters in it
Malignancy is the enemy, ironically composed of cells from the self.
In this episode, Dr Fran talks about life as a medical oncologist.
About the guest speaker
Dr Fran Boyle is a medical oncologist.at North Sydney’s Mater Hospital, where she is Director of the Patricia Ritchie Centre for Cancer Care and Research, and Professor of Medical Oncology at the University of Sydney. She is involved in the oncology teaching program of the Sydney Medical School and in communication skills training through the Pam McLean Centre.
Professor Fran’s clinical practice at the Poche Centre focuses on breast cancer and melanoma. Her current research interests include clinical trials of new cancer treatments, psychosocial and supportive care, and communication. Fran chairs the Board of Directors of the ANZ Breast Cancer Trials Group, and is a founding Director of the Australian Clinical Trials Alliance. She was honoured with Membership of the Order of Australia in 2008 for services to cancer research, advocacy, policy development and professional education.
Opening and closing themes by Lily Chen.
Breast cancer can be oestrogen-sensitive, so a treatment target for such types is to inhibit oestrogen.
In premenopausal women, selective oestrogen receptor modulators, more conveniently called SERMs, include tamoxifen. This particular medication acts as an oestrogen receptor antagonist at the breast but an oestrogen receptor agonist at the uterus, which is why it minority increases the risk of endometrial cancer.
In postmenopausal women, aromatase inhibitors are an option. These interrupt the production of oestrogen by suppressing the action of the enzyme aromatase. Anastrazole and letrozole are the names to know here; they’re non-steroidal, reversible binders of aromatase from the third generation of aromatase inhibitors.
Why are aromatase inhibitors less effective in premenopausal women? Premenopausal women have a large quantity of aromatase in the ovary. Note that ovarian aromatase is sensitive to changes in the gonadotropin LH, which is produced by the pituitary gland. If aromatase is suppressed with an aromatase inhibitor, gonadotropins increase in response, according to the usual feedback pattern, which stimulates more ovarian aromatase. This makes aromatase inhibitors less proficient at inhibiting oestrogen production in the ovary in such a group.
- Fabian, C. J. (2007). The what, why and how of aromatase inhibitors: hormonal agents for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 61(12), 2051–2063. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01587.x
A lumbar puncture is a procedure that involving drawing out cerebrospinal fluid, fondly known as CSF. For example, it can be used to check CSF for immune cells and glucose levels in suspected meningitis.
Lumbar puncture is considered an invasive procedure. But even with that aside, it’s not appropriate for everyone. That is, it does not suit all patients.
Contraindications to lumbar puncture are:
- Skin infection at the lumbar puncture site
- Uncorrected coagulopathy
- Increased intracranial pressure
- Trauma to the spinal cord
- Queen’s University School of Medicine. (n.d.). Contraindications. [online] Available at: https://meds.queensu.ca/central/assets/modules/lumbar_puncture/contraindications.html [Accessed 2 Feb. 2018].