Dornase Alfa

Dornase alfa is a mucolytic medication used in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. By cutting apart extracellular DNA, it makes mucus thinner.


  1. Genentech. (2018). How Pulmozyme works. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 Jan. 2018].
  2. Yang, C., Chilvers, M., Montgomery, M., & Nolan, S. J. (2016). Dornase alfa for cystic fibrosis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4, CD001127.

Lung Surfactant

Surfactant is produced by type 2 pneumocytes.

How can this be remembered?

Because surfactant has 2 ts in it.

People usually have 2 lungs, too.

Isn’t learning fun?


Yes, it is.


  1. BioNinja. (2017). Pneumocytes | BioNinja. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Aug. 2017].

Transudate Versus Exudate

Both are fluids that can occur in the body during inflammation or changes in liquid-solid (oncotic-hydrostatic) pressures.

Memory aids

Transudate is transparent, because it is clear and has a low protein content. It comes from a deranged balance of oncotic-hydrostatic pressures. As a generalisation, think systemic disease.

Exudate involves extruded proteins. It has a comparatively high protein content. As a generalisation, think local inflammation or malignancy.

Pleural effusions

A pleural effusion can involve transudate or exudate. Light’s Criteria is used to determine which is the case.


  1. Exeter Clinical Laboratory. Blood Sciences Test / Transudate or Exudate. Retrieved 19 March 2017, from
  2. Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog. Pleural Fluid Analysis. Retrieved 19 March 2017, from
  3. American Family Physician. (2006). Diagnostic Approach to Pleural Effusion in Adults. Retrieved 19 March 2017, from