Podcast 023: Pathology With Dr Nicky Graf

There are many things that can go wrong in the human body. Luckily, there’s a specialty that studies it: pathology. After all, a tissue diagnosis must be made! The show must go on!

In this episode, Dr Nicky talks about work, microscopes and social interaction in the specialty of pathology.


About the guest speaker

Dr Nicky Graf completed her pathology training in 2000, and has been a staff specialist (Anatomical Pathology) at The Children’s Hospital at Westmead since 2001, with a specialty focus of paediatric and perinatal pathology. She has been the department head for the past 10 years (since Oct 2007).

Dr Nicky has a particular interest in paediatric tumour pathology and renal pathology, but covers all areas of paediatric and perinatal pathology practice. Her department is one of three sites (although the largest with regards to case load) servicing the newly created state-wide perinatal pathology service.

Dr Nicky’s interests are reading, spending time with her family, skiing (snow) and travel (recently went to Antarctica – amazing!).

Music credits

Opening and closing themes by Lily Chen.


Human Herpesvirus Associations

Sometimes, memory aids and mnemonics fall conveniently into place. Other times, the only way to remember something is through its inconvenience, by taking the opposite of whatever it totally should have been.


  • Associated with roseola
  • Memory aid: roseola has 7 letters, which is inconveniently not 6 but certainly less than 8


  • Associated with Kaposi sarcoma
  • Memory aid: Kaposi has 6 letters, so it is not HHV-6, while Kaposi’s has 8 characters in it

Hypokalaemia ECG Changes

There are three major ones, plus more!

  1. ST depression
  2. Flattened T waves
  3. Abnormally prominent U waves

The way to remember this is that, in line with the subpar nature of hypokalaemia, everything is weak and low!

ST depression is a depression, so it is low.

The T waves have low amplitude, so they too are low.

The dip of the letter U, as in U waves, looks like the minimum point of a parabola, so it’s also low.

Conveniently, it all follows an alphabetical pattern: ST, T, U.


  1. ECG Learning Center. (n.d.). 12. Nice Seeing “U” Again. [online] Available at: https://ecg.utah.edu/lesson/12 [Accessed 4 Jul. 2018].
  2. Burns, E. (n.d.). Hypokalaemia. [online] LITFL. Available at: https://lifeinthefastlane.com/ecg-library/basics/hypokalaemia/ [Accessed 4 Jul. 2018].

Podcast 022: Renal Medicine With Dr Lucy Wynter

The heart isn’t actually heart-shaped, but kidneys really are kidney-shaped!

In this episode, Dr Lucy talks about renal medicine, how to make it into physician specialty training and finding a job in the modern medical climate.


About the guest speaker

Dr Lucy Wynter did her nephrology training at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and Concord Hospital and maintains close ties with both centres. She completed a Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery with honours and a Masters of Bioethics, at Sydney University.

Dr Lucy lectures at the University of Sydney Medical School and is currently employed part time as a Senior Lecturer and Clinical Studies Advisor to the Office of Medical Education.

Dr Lucy’s particular interests include: Hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetic Nephropathy, Kidney Stones, Cardio-renal Syndrome and Renal Supportive Care.

Music credits

Opening and closing themes by Lily Chen.