Issues With Breast Tissues
Bras haven’t been proven to be useful. One argument is that it’s more of a personal preference or even a fashion statement.
There isn’t much research on this front. But based on the limited evidence out there, bras are more likely to be harmful if they’re the wrong fit. The nudists win again.
DKA can lead to AKI.
DKA can lead to lactic acidosis, which can be associated with thiamine deficiency.
Thiamine deficiency less commonly involves vomiting, which can stain clothing. The nudists win again.
- Mills, D. (2016). Health Effects of Not Wearing a Bra. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/health-news/going-braless-wont-hurt-breast-health
- Why is BRA important?. (2016). Retrieved from https://smah.uow.edu.au/brl/bra/whyisbraimportant/index.html
- Prywes, M. Science Proves That Wearing Bras Is Bad For Your Health. Retrieved from https://www.lifehack.org/336735/science-proves-that-wearing-bras-bad-for-your-health
- Hunimed Web Team. (2017). The advantages and disadvantages of wearing a bra. Retrieved from https://www.hunimed.eu/news/advantages-disadvantages-wearing-bra/
- Orban, J. C., Maizière, E. M., Ghaddab, A., Van Obberghen, E., & Ichai, C. (2014). Incidence and characteristics of acute kidney injury in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. PloS one, 9(10), e110925. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0110925
- Feenstra, R. A., Kiewiet, M. K., Boerma, E. C., & ter Avest, E. (2014). Lactic acidosis in diabetic ketoacidosis. BMJ case reports, 2014, bcr2014203594. doi:10.1136/bcr-2014-203594
- Moskowitz, A., Graver, A., Giberson, T., Berg, K., Liu, X., Uber, A., Gautam, S., … Donnino, M. W. (2013). The relationship between lactate and thiamine levels in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Journal of critical care, 29(1), 182.e5-8.
- Berkheiser, K. (2018). 11 Signs and Symptoms of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Deficiency. Retrieved from https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/thiamine-deficiency-symptoms
You means a patient, unless you are the patient, which would be a bit awkward. It sure was a catchy title, though.
If urine isn’t available, blood can be used on a point-of-care pregnancy testing device.
- Lin, M. (2018). Trick of the Trade: Urine pregnancy test without urine. [online] ALiEM. Available at: https://www.aliem.com/2012/04/trick-of-trade-urine-pregnancy-test/ [Accessed 19 May 2018].
Trisomy 13: Patau syndrome
Trisomy 18: Edward syndrome
Trisomy 21: Down syndrome
Informative, right? Not yet! The real meat, or pseudo-meat if you’re not of a carnivorous sentiment, is in the memorising.
Arrange these trisomies in order of increasing number: 13, 18, 21.
Then the mnemonic you need is: PED. As in pediatrics! As in children! Which is the patient demographic to whom these congenital trisomies relate.
The prevalence follows a similar trend; Patau syndrome is the most life-threatening but least common and those with Edward syndrome can live a tiny bit longer but not much so, while Down syndrome is more compatible with life and the most common of these three conditions.
Down syndrome is famously detected through a first trimester screening test:
- Free beta-hCG
- Nuchal translucency scan
- Measures nuchal fold thickness, as this is greater in Down syndrome
NIPT is another option. It’s non-invasive prenatal testing that uses the mother’s blood.
The more definitive options are:
- Done earlier but presents greater risk to the foetus, because it’s about chopping off a bit of the chorionic villus
- Done later at half the risk of CVS, with the downside of the parents having to find out further into the pregnancy compared to CVS
- The University of Chicago Pediatrics Clerkship. (2018). Trisomy 18 (Edwards), Trisomy 13 (Patau). [online] Available at: https://pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu/page/trisomy-18-edwards-trisomy-13-patau [Accessed 31 Mar. 2018].
- Pregnancy, Birth and Baby. (2018). Screening for Down syndrome. [online] Available at: https://www.pregnancybirthbaby.org.au/screening-for-down-syndrome [Accessed 31 Mar. 2018].
- BabyCenter Australia. (2018). Screening for Down syndrome. [online] Available at: https://www.babycenter.com.au/a1487/screening-for-down-syndrome [Accessed 31 Mar. 2018].