In an experiment involving the ever-unfortunate mice, the following steps occurred:

  • Mice inoculated with influenza virus
  • Th17 cells activated and migrate to respiratory and gastrointestinal systems
    • Both respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts have mucosa, so they are similar in a way
  • Th17 cells produce cytokines IL-17A and IFN-γ
    • These cytokines mess with intestinal bacteria
    • Results in less Lacto-, more Entero-
  • Intestinal injury

References

  1. Racaniello, V. (2014). How influenza virus infection might lead to gastrointestinal symptoms. [online] virology blog. Available at: http://www.virology.ws/2014/12/10/how-influenza-virus-infection-might-lead-to-gastrointestinal-symptoms/ [Accessed 5 Feb. 2020].

Podcast 032: Rheumatology With Dr Allan Sturgess

Some people light up joints and some people light up when they hear about joints. Although these are theoretically not mutually exclusive, rheumatologists tend to form the latter group.

In this episode, Dr Allan talks about rheumatology, interesting diseases in the specialty and what it’s like to win an award shaped like a foot.

Podcast

About the guest speaker

Dr Allan Sturgess is an Associate Professor of Rheumatology and specialist working in Sydney, Australia. He is the Department Head at St George Hospital.

Dr Allan enjoys hiking, reading and generally being rather awesome.

Music credits

Opening and closing blips by Lily Chen.

U Waves

The U wave is a smaller structure after the T wave that resembles a second T wave, kind of like Baby Mario, M&M’s Minis or Pichu. It’s best seen in V2 and V3.

Prominent U waves are most commonly found in:

  • Bradycardia
  • Hypokalaemia

Inverted U waves are abnormal and point to cardiac disease.

References

  1. Burns, E. (2019). U Wave. [online] Life in the Fast Lane. Available at: https://litfl.com/u-wave-ecg-library/ [Accessed 29 Jan. 2020].

Pulsus Paradoxus

It’s normal for blood pressure to drop when breathing in.

When you breathe in, the negative intrathoracic pressure increases. That basically means the extra force of all the air you’re leeching from the atmosphere pushes on the insides of the body, squishing the important bits of the cardiovascular system. So, the blood flow gushing out to the rest of the body is reduced a bit, referring to the cardiac output emitting from the left side of the heart. Note that venous return to the right side of the heart increases with inspiration.

A drop in SBP<10 is normal during inspiration. When it’s greater than this, it’s pulsus paradoxus. That can happen in things like:

  • croup
    • inflammatory reaction to parainfluenza virus
    • results in airway obstruction, mainly in children because they have smaller airways
    • airway obstruction means even bigger negative intrathoracic pressures
    • this increases left ventricular afterload, which is the force the heart has to push blood against
  • cardiac tamponade
    • heart is compressed
    • leads to reduced cardiac output

References

  1. Olfa Hamzaoui, Xavier Monnet, Jean-Louis Teboul, Pulsus paradoxus
  2. Van Dam MN, Fitzgerald BM. Pulsus Paradoxus. [Updated 2019 Jun 4]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482292/

The Sad Evils Of Smoked Salmon

Smoked seafood has, unfortunately, been cast into the same category as preserved meats. These traitors have been linked with an increased risk of malignancy. Shun them all!

On the plus side, chicken is still in season(ing). As long as you’re not a greedy pig about it. Moderation, which basically means not over-gorging, is the key to success. That is, health.

References

  1. Egan, S. (2019). Do Lox and Other Smoked Fish Increase Cancer Risk?. Retrieved 29 August 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/26/well/eat/does-lox-and-other-smoked-fish-increase-cancer-risk.html
  2. Meat, Poultry, and Fish: Picking Healthy Proteins. (2017). Retrieved 29 August 2019, from https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/nutrition-basics/meat-poultry-and-fish-picking-healthy-proteins

Podcast 031: Vascular Surgery With Dr Gabrielle McMullin

Blood vessels are needed to keep the liquid of life pumping throughout our bodies. Bad vessels lead to bad flow, which is undoubtedly a bad thing.

In this episode, Dr Gabrielle talks about vascular surgery, rather interesting stories and workplace injustice.

Podcast

About the guest speaker

Dr Gabrielle McMullin is a consultant vascular and endovascular surgeon with a long list of letters adorning her name: MB BCh BAO FRCSEd FRACS MCh. She is a specialist at The Sutherland and St George Hospitals in Sydney, as well as a mentor for women in surgery.

Dr Gabrielle was born in Uganda, attended school in Hong Kong and studied medicine at Trinity College in Dublin. She then worked in numerous countries, including Ireland, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Hong Kong, England and Australia, where she has lived for 25 years. It has been a fascinating journey.

Dr Gabrielle spends what is left of her spare time with her husband and 2 children.

Music credits

Opening and closing auditory experiences by Rupert Keller.